Die Hamletmaschine is an opera composed by Wolfgang Rihm to a German-language libretto based on Heiner Müller's 1977 play of the same name. The libretto, subtitled Musiktheater in 5 Teilen (Music Drama in 5 parts), was written by the composer. The opera was composed between 1983 and 1986 and premiered on 30 March 1987 at the Nationaltheater Mannheim. BackgroundPerformance historyRolesStructureMusicOther musical settingsReferences Background Müller's play, on which the opera is based, paraphrases Shakespeare's Hamlet. In the play's first staged production, directed by Robert Wilson, the first words—"Ich war Hamlet." (I was Hamlet.)—were spoken after 20 minutes of silent action. Rihm composed his opera between 1983 and 1986 and presented parts of the score for the Rolf-Liebermann-Preis of Hamburg, which he won in 1986. Performance history Die Hamletmaschine premiered on 30 March 1987 at the Nationaltheater Mannheim in a production directed by Friedrich Meyer-Oertel and conducted by Peter Schneider. The role of Ophelia, written for a Wagnerian soprano, was sung by Gabriele Schnaut. The Hamlet character was portrayed at different stages in his life by three separate performers: the actors Kurt Müller and Rudolf Kowalski as Hamlet I and Hamlet II, and the baritone Johannes M. Kösters as Hamlet III. A live recording of the opera's premiere was released on CD in 1995 (Wergo #6195) Roles Hamlet I (male actor) Hamlet II (male actor) Hamlet III (baritone) Ophelia (soprano) Ophelia's doubles: Marx (soprano), Lenin (soprano), Mao (mezzo-soprano) 3 naked women, voices from the casket (soprano, soprano, mezzo-soprano) 4 laughing people (2 female and 2 male actors) 3 screaming people (3 male actors) Structure I. Familienalbum (Family Album) II. Das Europa der Frau (Europe of the Woman) III. Scherzo IV. Pest in Buda, Schlacht um Grönland (Pest in Buda, Battle of Greenland) V. Wildharrend, In der furchtbaren Rüstung, Jahrtausende (Wildstraining, In the Fearsome Armaments, Millennia) Music The opera is scored for actors, singing and speaking voices, choir and orchestra. The work is described in the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera as following Stockhausen in that it seeks "a total theatre of sound and nonnarrative, ritualistic drama." Sounds use the complete space of a hall by placing instrumentalists not only in the pit, but also on stage and in the audience. Sounds are mixed from live performance, electronic amplification and purely electronic sounds, described as soundscapes. Other musical settings Müller's play, which formed the basis for the libretto, has subsequently had two more musical settings—an opera by Ruth Zechlin for singers and small orchestra (1991) and an oratorio for choir, soloists and orchestra by Georges Aperghis (2000). References ^ a b Universal Edition. Wolfgang Rihm, Die Hamletmaschine: Musiktheater in 5 Teilen. Retrieved 21 July 2013. ^ Herbort, Heinz Josef Herbort (29 May 1987). Letzte Szenen in Momentform / Verwirrung und Tod, Zwiespalt und Entscheidungslosigkeit gebannt in Bildern aus dem Geist der Musik, Die Zeit (in German) ^ Wolfgang Rihm Biografie, Karlsruher Rihm Center (in German). Retrieved 23 July 2013. ^ a b WERGO. Wolfgang Rihm, v. Retrieved 21 July 2013. ^ AllMusic. Rihm: Die Hamletmaschine. Retrieved 21 July 2013. ^ a b c d e f g h Gelli, Piero and Poletti, Filippo (eds.) (2007). "Hamletmaschine", Dizionario dell'opera, p. 611. Dalai. (in Italian) ^ Die Hamletmaschine (Musiktheater in 5 Teilen) operone (in German) ^ Warrack, John and West, Ewan (eds.) (1996). "Rihm, Wolfgang", Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera, p. 432. Oxford University Press. ^ Elzenheimer, Regine (2008). Pause. Schweigen. Stille: Dramaturgien der Abwesenheit im postdramatischen Musik-Theater, Königshausen & Neumann, ps. 192–199 (in German). ^ Yunker, Johanna Frances (2013). "Father or Criminal: Ruth Zechlin's Post-Reunification Opera Die Reise", p. 3. AMS-SW Conference, Spring 2013, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio. Retrieved 21 July 2013. Further reading Neff, Severine (1990). "Die Hamletmaschine: Musiktheater in fünf Teilen (1983–1986) by Wolfgang Rihm". Notes, Second Series, Vol. 47, No. 1 (September 1990), pp. 215–217 (subscription required) vteWilliam Shakespeare's HamletCharacters Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Ghost Polonius Laertes Ophelia Horatio Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Fortinbras The Gravediggers Yorick Soliloquies "To be, or not to be" "Mortal coil" "What a piece of work is a man" "Speak the speech" Words and phrases "The lady doth protest too much, methinks" "Thy name is" Terminology Dumbshow Induction Quiddity Substitution SourcesCriticism Legend of Hamlet The Spanish Tragedy Ur-Hamlet Critical approaches Bibliographies Horwendill Saxo Grammaticus House of Gonzaga Damon and Pythias Influence Common phrases from Hamlet Hamlet in popular culture References to Ophelia Language of flowers Human skull symbolism Performances Moscow Art Theatre (1911–1912) Richard Burton (1964) On screen 1900 1907 1908 1912 1913 1917 1921 1935 1948 1954 1961 1964 1969 1974 1990 1996 2000 2011 AdaptationsFilms The Rest Is Silence (1959) The Bad Sleep Well (1960) Ophelia (1963) Johnny Hamlet (1968) One Hamlet Less (1973) The Angel of Vengeance – The Female Hamlet (1977) Strange Brew (1983) Hamlet Goes Business (1987) The Lion King (1994) Let the Devil Wear Black (1999) The Banquet (2006) Tardid (2009) Karmayogi (2012) Haider (2014) Hamlet A.D.D. (2014) Ophelia (2018) The Lion King (2019) Novels Gertrude and Claudius (2000) Dating Hamlet (2002) Ophelia's Revenge (2003) The Dead Fathers Club (2006) Something Rotten (2007) Hamlet's Father (2008) The Story of Edgar Sawtelle (2008) Hamlet Had an Uncle Plays Hamletmachine (1977) Dogg's Hamlet (1979) Fortinbras (1991) Musicals Rockabye Hamlet (1973) The Lion King (1997) Television Hamlet (Australian TV, 1959) Hamlet at Elsinore (BBC, 1964) Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (BBC, 1980) Hamlet (BBC 2, animated, 1992) Hamlet (BBC 2, 2009) Parodies 15-Minute Hamlet The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Io, Amleto The Klingon Hamlet "Lyle the Kindly Viking" To Be or Not to Be: That is the Adventure "Tales from the Public Domain" Songs "My Robin is to the Greenwood Gone" (16th century) "Pull Me Under" (1992) "Song for Athene" (1997) Opera/classical Hamlet (Thomas) Amleto (Faccio) Hamlet (Tchaikovsky) Tristia (Berlioz) Die Hamletmaschine (Rihm) Hamlet (Dean) Story within a storyFilms To Be or Not to Be (1942) Acting Hamlet in the Village of Mrdusa Donja (1973) To Be or Not to Be (1983) Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead (1990) Highlander II: The Quickening (1991) Last Action Hero (1993) Renaissance Man (1994) In the Bleak Midwinter (1995) War (2002) Hamlet 2 (2008) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Undead (2009) Three Days (2012) Plays Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1966) Stage Blood (1974) I Hate Hamlet (1991) To Be or Not to Be (2008) Novels Hamlet, Revenge! (1937) Theatre of War (1994) "The Undiscovered" (1997) The Shakespeare Stealer (1998) Interred with Their Bones (2007) Television "The Producer" (1966) "The Conscience of the King" (1966) "Born to Be King" (1983) "Terrance and Phillip: Behind the Blow" (2001) Slings & Arrows (2003) Art Ophelia Affe mit Schädel Video game Last Action Hero (1993) Hamlet (2010) Intertextuality Asterix and the Great Crossing The Seagull Sharpe's Havoc Related Hamlet and Oedipus Hamlet and His Problems Hebenon Hamlet Q1 Ostalo je ćutanje The Chronicles of Amber "Symphony No. 65" (Haydn) The Hobart Shakespeareans Gertrude – The Cry Poor Murderer Something Rotten!